Arani (Sanskrit) [from the verbal root ri to tend upward, move, insert, fix] Moving around; being fitted in or inserted. Arani (sing) is one of the two ceremonial rubbing-sticks used to ignite the sacrificial fire: the upper stick, uttararani or pramantha, is held upright and set into a groove in the lower stick, adhararani, and when twirled or rotated rapidly it generates heat and flame. According to the Rig-Veda, the upright stick was made from the sami tree (Mimosa suma), and the horizontal from the asvattha or pipal tree (Ficus religiosa), the sacred fig tree. In the Satapatha-brahmana, however, both sticks were carved from the wood of the asvattha. The arani (dual) represent the father and mother elements in nature, the creative, generative energy producing the offspring from the receiver, the mother. While the male/female metaphor has application physiologically, it may be interpreted cosmically: "this idea of the creative power of fire is explained at once by the ancient assimilation of the human soul to a celestial spark" (M. G. Dech 261); again "The 'female Arani,' the mistress of the race, is Aditi, the mother of the gods, or Shekinah, eternal light -- in the world of Spirit, the 'Great Deep' and Chaos; or primordial Substance in its first remove from the Unknown, in the manifested Kosmos" (SD 2:527).