Panchatantrapancatantra (Sanskrit) [from pancha five + tantra book] A collection in five books of philosophical and moral instruction often given in the form of dialogs between birds and beasts as well as humans. It was compiled by Vishnusarman about the end of the 5th century and is the original of the better-known Hitopadesa. The source of many familiar stories and doubtless the remote ancestor of Aesop's Fables. It was translated into Pahlavi by order of Naushirvan in the 6th century; in the 9th century it appeared in Arabic as Kalila o Damna; it was translated into Hebrew, Syriac, Turkish, and Greek. From these, versions were made into all the languages of Europe, and it became familiar in England as Pilpay's Fables (Fables of Bidpai).
The Panchatantra (IAST: Pañcatantra, , 'Five Sections') is an ancient Indian collection of interrelated animal fables in verse and prose, arranged within a frame story. The original Sanskrit work, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BCE, is attributed to Vishnu Sharma. It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine".