collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish civil and religious law
(Hebrew) [from the verbal root lamadh
to teach, train in learning, discipline] Study of and instruction in anything (whether by anyone else or by oneself); learning acquired; style, system (as such it is synonymous with Mishnah -- oral tradition -- in one of its meanings); theory in contradistinction to practice; interpretation of the Mosaic law as is apparent on the surface and not requiring further disquisition; the noncanonical tradition (Barayetha'); the oldest commentary on the canonical tradition (Gemara'); the texts of tradition and commentary combined -- this last meaning being the one commonly applied. The Talmud is the body of Rabbinical commentaries on Judaism.
There are two recensions of the Talmud:
1) that of Palestine called the Jerusalem Talmud
although the work was prepared by the pupils of Rabbi Yohanan ben 'El`azar in the school of Tiberias situated some 45 miles north of Jerusalem: it was entitled Talmud of the Benei Me-`arba' (of the Sons of the West) by early writers;
2) that of Babylon composed principally in the 5th century from old oral courses by Rabbi 'Ashshei bar Sinai, headmaster of the Academy at Sura' and completed in the 6th century by Rabbi Yosei.
These works are not the religious or natural philosophy of the Jews, but oral traditions and discussion of the rabbis upon these legends. Christian Orientalists have given most attention to the Palestinian recension, although the Babylonian is preferred by the rabbis who call it the Shas -- i.e., Shishshah Sedarim -- six books ordered or arranged. The Babylonian is four times as large as the Jerusalem.
to be continue "Talmud2 "
\tal"mud\ (?), n. [chald. talmūd instruction, doctrine, fr. lamad to learn, limmad to teach.] the body of the jewish civil and canonical law not comprised in the pentateuch.
note: the talmud consists of two parts, the mishna, or text, and the gemara, or commentary. sometimes, however, the name talmud is restricted, especially by jewish writers, to the gemara. there are two talmuds, the palestinian, commonly, but incorrectly, called the talmud of jerusalem, and the babylonian talmud. they contain the same mishna, but different gemaras. the babylonian talmud is about three times as large as the other, and is more highly esteemed by the jews. [talmud
n : sacred writings of orthodox judaism [syn: talmud]
(i.e. doctrine, from the Hebrew word "to learn") is a large collection of writings, containing a full account of the civil and religious laws of the Jews. It was a fundamental principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, that by the side of the written law, regarded as a summary of the principles and general laws of the Hebrew people, there was an oral law, to complete and to explain the written law. It was an article of faith that in the Pentateuch there was no precept, and no regulation, ceremonial, doctrinal or legal, of which God had not given to Moses all explanations necessary for their application, with the order to transmit them by word of mouth. The classical subject is the following in the Mishna on this wing: "Moses received the (oral) law from Sinai, and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets and the prophets to the men of the Great Synagogue." This oral law, with the numerous commentaries upon it, forms the Talmud. It consists of two parts, the Mishna and Gemara.
→ The MISHNA, or "second law," which contains a compendium of the whole ritual law, was reduced to writing in its present form by Rabbi Jehuda the Holy, a Jew of great wealth and influence, who flourished in the second century of the Christian era. Viewed as a whole, the precepts in the Mishna treated men like children, formalizing and defining the minutest particulars of ritual observances. The expressions of "bondage," or "weak and beggarly elements," and of "burdens too heavy for men to bear," faithfully represent the impression produced by their multiplicity. The Mishna is very concisely written, and requires notes.
→ This circumstance led to the commentaries called GEMARA (i.e. supplement, completion), which form the second part of the Talmud, and which are very commonly meant when the word "Talmud" is used by itself. There are two Gemaras; one of Jerusalem, in which there is said to be no passage which can be proved to be later than the first half of the fourth century; and the other of Babylon, completed about 500 A.D. The latter is the more important and by far the longer.
The Talmud (; Hebrew: "instruction, learning", from a root "teach, study") is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism. It is also traditionally referred to as , a Hebrew abbreviation of , the "six orders", a reference to the six orders of the Mishnah. The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the Babylonian Talmud (Talmud Bavli), although there is also an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud, or Palestinian Talmud (Talmud Yerushalmi). When referring to post-biblical periods, namely those of the creation of the Talmud, the Talmudic academies and the Babylonian exilarchate, Jewish sources use the term "Babylonia" from a strictly Jewish point of view, still using this name after it had become obsolete in geopolitical terms.
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1. the collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish law and tradition (the Mishna and the Gemara) that constitute the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism
(hypernym) Talmudic literature
The body of the Jewish civil and canonical law not comprised in the Pentateuch.
The Talmud--specifically the Babylonian Talmud--is the central religious text of the Rabbinic and later periods. It was composed by the rabbis living in Babylonia and supposedly records many sayings of rabbis. It was "published" in the sixth century CE. It provides the main basis for post-Temple Judaism, in particular during the Medieval Period.
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