Book of the Dead, Egyptian The name given to certain ancient papyri of the Egyptian, more correctly called Pert em hru (coming forth into day or light). They have been discovered in many of the tombs, interred with the mummies. Although by no means the only text of importance coming down from the ancient Egyptians, it is a work of extreme antiquity, containing the system expounded by the priests, and is far older than the two other extant works known as the Book of the Pylons and the Book of the Tuat. The work depicts in symbolic form the afterdeath state, as presented by the priests to the populace of Egypt. The soul is depicted in the guise of a pilgrim, journeying through various halls, at the portals of each of which he was obliged to give a correct answer -- an account of the life he had lived upon earth. The pilgrim eventually reached the judgment hall, within which he was tried by the company of gods and goddesses. Before Osiris his heart was placed in a balance to testify for or against him. If he passed the test satisfactorily, he was permitted by Osiris to enter his domain and become as one of the deities. In a mystical sense, the Book of the Dead is a veiled rendition of the passage of the defunct through the various tests and trials of kama-loka before entering devachan; and of the trials of initiation which were but copies, at least in its lower degrees, of the postmortem pilgrimage of the dead.
egyptian \e*gyp"tian\ (?), a. [l. aegyptius, gr. &?;, fr. &?; (l. aegyptus) egypt: cf. f. égyptien. cf. gypsy.] pertaining to egypt, in africa. egyptian bean. (bot.) (a) the beanlike fruit of an aquatic plant (nelumbium speciosum), somewhat resembling the water lily. (b) see under bean, 1. egyptian cross. see illust. (no. 6) of cross. egyptian thorn (bot.), a medium-sized tree (acacia vera). it is one of the chief sources of the best gum arabic. egyptian \e*gyp"tian\, n. 1. a native, or one of the people, of egypt; also, the egyptian language. 2. a gypsy. [obs.]
egyptian pea egyptian lupine egyptian pound egyptian onion egyptian water lily egyptian thorn egyptian reed egyptian privet egyptian bath sponge egyptian or east indian egyptian empire egyptian clover egyptian bean egyptian cross egyptian chlorosis egyptian corn
The Egyptian language is the language spoken in ancient Egypt. Its daughter language, Coptic, died out in the 17th century AD. It thus has one of the longest histories of any language. There is a vast literature, both secular and religious. From 650 BC the classicizing tendencies of the scribes gave way to Demotic Egyptian, and Demotic inscriptions are found until the mid- 5th century AD. Coptic became dominant in the 4th century AD, but started to decline after the introduction of Arabic in the 7th century. Egyptian inscriptions were written in hieroglyphs. There were also two cursive scripts based on the hieroglyphs: Hieratic, used for religious documents; and Demotic, for ordinary documents. Coptic was written in the Greek alphabet, with seven extra letters taken from Demotic. Egyptian is part of the Afro-asiatic group of languages, a larger group which includes Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, and the Semitic languages. The language is: Egyptian Language
Noun 1. a native or inhabitant of Egypt (hypernym) African (hyponym) Copt (member-holonym) Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt, United Arab Republic 2. the ancient and now extinct language of Egypt under the Pharaohs; written records date back to 3000 BC (hypernym) Afroasiatic, Afro-Asiatic, Afroasiatic language, Afrasian, Afrasian language, Hamito-Semitic (hyponym) Coptic Adjective 1. of or relating to or characteristic of Egypt or its people or their language (pertainym) Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt, United Arab Republic