du lat. nationem, qui vient de natus, né. Nation dans l'ancienne langue signifiait aussi, comme en latin, naissance, nature.zâd-mân mellat (arabi) + SYNONYME :
NATION, PEUPLE. Dans le sens étymologique, nation marque un rapport commun de naissance, d'origine, et peuple un rapport de nombre et d'ensemble. De là résulte que l'usage considère surtout nation comme représentant le corps des habitants d'un même pays, et peuple comme représentant ce même corps dans ses rapports politiques. Mais l'usage confond souvent ces deux mots ; et, sous la constitution de 1791, on avait adopté la formule : la nation, la loi, le roi. + A nation is not to be defined by affinities of language or a common historical origin, though these things often help to produce a nation. ... What constitutes a nation is a sentiment and an instinct, a sentiment of similarity and an instinct of belonging to the same group or herd.[...] The sentiment which goes with this is like a milder and more extended form of family feeling. ... This group instinct, however it may have arisen, is what constitutes a nation, and what makes it important that the boundaries of nations should also be the boundaries of states.
National sentiment is a fact, and should be taken account of by institutions. When it is ignored, it is intensified and becomes a source of strife. It can only be rendered harmless by being given free play, so long as it is not predatory. But it is not, in itself, a good or admirable feeling. There is nothing rational and nothing desirable in a limitation of sympathy which confines it to a fragment of the human race. Diversities of manners and customs and traditions are, on the whole, a good thing, since they enable different nations to produce different types of excellence. But in national feeling there is always latent or explicit an element of hostility to foreigners. National feeling, as we know it, could not exist in a nation which was wholly free from external pressure of a hostile kind.